Appendix A
AAA Resolution on Minorities

THE RESOLUTION

Submitted on Behalf of the Executive Board by

Dell Hymes and George M. Foster

Introduced at New Orleans Meeting

November 1969

Whereas the participation in research and teaching of persons of diverse backgrounds is essential to objectivity and relevance in anthropology;

and whereas knowledge of significant aspects of communities and groups is often accessible only to persons with roots in those communities and groups;

and whereas persons with roots in other than the white middle-class sector of American society can make invaluable contributions to knowledge of all sectors of contemporary life;

and whereas few persons from other than the white middle-class sector now enter anthropology in the United States and achieve professional recognition; therefore, be it resolved that the American Anthropological Association urges vigorous recruitment of students of Black, Chicano, American Indian, Asian and other such backgrounds into anthropology in universities and colleges, and vigorous efforts to hire and facilitate the careers of such persons in the profession.

THE CALL FOR NOMINATIONS

The Executive Board has established an ad hoc Committee on Minority Participation which will implement the pertinent resolution passed at the Annual Meeting for which mail ballot ratification is anticipated. The Committee is to recommend immediate and long range methods for enabling the profession to move speedily to increase the number of anthropologists of minority background.

The Committee will consist of seven members and will include Fellows as well as other members of the Association; graduate students especially are sought. It is expected that committee members' life experience or immediate professional experience will be related to minority participation. The Executive Board liaison member on the Committee is James L. Gibbs, Jr.

Persons wishing to make nominations for the Committee should send names of nominees, together with a brief statement of qualifications, to Gibbs.


Appendix B

Questionnaire from the Committee on Minorities and Anthropology
American Anthropological Association

The Committee on Minorities and Anthropology is anxious to gather information on the perspectives of minority anthropologists. We feel that the Executive Board and the entire membership of the AAA must be made aware of the attitudes of minority anthropologists and must become more responsive to the needs and interests of minority people. Now is your opportunity to help us formulate these views so that the profession can take steps to change anthropology and the attitude of anthropologists toward minorities both as professional colleagues and as objects of study.

The Committee on Minorities and Anthropology grew out of a resolution introduced at the 1969 AAA Annual Meeting, urging the vigorous recruitment of minority students and encouraging efforts to facilitate their careers in the profession. A statement from the AAA Board in May 1971 recognized the constraint placed by the original resolution on the work of the Committee and urged it to broaden its perspective to include the question of the improvement of research dealing with minorities and minority-majority relations and other issues, and to present its findings in some useful fashion.

As a colleague in anthropology of minority background, you are being urged to participate in the present survey. As you will see, taken as a whole, the questionnaire is strongly qualitative, or subjective--and deliberately so--because this will be more helpful to the Committee.

We have not asked you to answer anonymously since it would be easy to identify respondents from addresses, ethnic background and information about publications and professional activities. If you object to the second part of the questionnaire, please answer the first part and tell us why you object. All answers will be kept confidential. The questionnaire will not be available to other than the members of this Committee, and no one will be identified in the report by name. Where specific examples are asked for, it is requested that you give details of the situation without using the names of the persons involved. In order to explore selected problems in greater depth, we would like to follow this questionnaire with personal interviews in some cases. Please indicate in question 28 your willingness to be interviewed.

We invite you to add commentary or further information not specifically requested in the wording of this questionnaire. It you need more space to answer any question, please write on the back of the page or add additional sheets. Please return the questionnaire and comments within two weeks to the chairman.

Committee on Minorities and Anthropology
American Anthropological Association

Part I. Personal Information

It will help us to understand the career lines and experiences of minority anthropologists if you will provide the following information. Enclose a vita for personal information if you prefer, indicating where on the vita the information requested here can be found.

1. Name

2. Address (City) / (State) / (Zip Code)

3. Birth Date

4. Place of Birth

5. Sex

6. Present Title

7. Place of Employment

(University or Institution)

(Department or Affiliation)

8. Academic degrees: date received, awarding institution, and current status if not awarded.

9. Positions held, place, date.

10. Offices and committee assignments in professional organizations, universities, and the local community.

a. Committee assignments filled or offices held in professional organizations.


Organization		Dates	Assignment or Office

b. Committee assignments filled or offices held in the university context.




University		Dates	Assignment or Office

c. Committee assignments filled, offices or consultantships held in the community.




City			Dates	Activity

d. Other professional activities or consultantships.






Place			Dates	Activity

e. How many books and articles have you published?

f. How many have you submitted for publication?

g. How many have you been invited to prepare?

11a. Fellowships and grants received, amount, dates, and duration.

b. How many awards have you applied for? Give dates.

12a. Which languages were spoken in your home when you were a child?

b. Which languages are spoken in your home now?

13a. Do you consider yourself to be a minority anthropologist?

b. What term or phrase can best be used to refer to your ethnic background? (Black, Chicano, American Indian, Chinese, Japanese, other)

c. What term or phrase can best be used inclusively to refer to a wider ethnic or minority category with which you identify? (Non-white, white, European, non-European, African, Asian, other)

d. Have you changed your surname because of your minority status?

Part II. Personal and Professional Experiences

14. Do you feel that your experiences have differed in anthropology either positively or negatively from those of non-minority anthropologists? If so, please tell us in what ways.

15. Were your experiences as a student different from those of nonminority students? If so, please tell us in what ways.

16. It has been said that the intellectual contributions of minority anthropologists are not given the same consideration as those of non-minority anthropologists. For example, the writings of minority anthropologists are often not reviewed in professional journals, not quoted or cited, and seldom used as required readings. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? If you agree, can you think of examples? If you disagree, please comment.

17. Do you feel that you have been discriminated against in your professional career because of race, color, or creed?

Yes ______ No ______

Please cite examples or comment. In thinking about how to answer, you may wish to consider some or all of the following aspects of a career line: (qualifications required for teaching and research positions, difficulties in acquiring beginning posts, awarding of half-time positions; salaries; promotions; tenure; pressure to publish; teaching responsibilities, e.g., course load, choice of courses, evaluation of performance; other aspects of the professional role, e.g., committee assignments, executive positions; employment outside the university; pressures for third-world or community involvement.)

18. Some minority anthropologists say that in contrast to non-minority anthropologists they have been utilized in the following ways: field worker and interviewer; liaison to a minority, ethnic or cultural group; "cultural broker-interpreter" for majority member anthropologists; informant. Does your experience, both as a student and professional anthropologist now, bear out this assertion? If so, please tell us about it. If you disagree, please comment.

19. It has also been asserted that minority anthropologists have been excluded from making theoretical formulations, interpretations of research findings, and policy decisions. Does your experience both as a student and a professional anthropologist bear but this assertion? If so, please tell us about it. If not, please comment.

20. How do you feel about anthropology?

21. Do you feel that anthropological studies in the past have rendered service or disservice to minority groups in American society? Please include specific examples you may know of in your answer.

22a. How do you assess the research which has been conducted on your minority group?

b. Do you think such work can be improved? Please comment.

23. Can you suggest ways in which anthropology can be used to serve the needs of minority groups in the United States?

24. Do you advise minority students to enter anthropology? Why or why not?

25. Can you suggest ways in which anthropology can be made more relevant for minority students?

26. Can you give an estimate of the number of students of minority background at your university or institution who are interested in anthropology?

Undergraduate?

Graduate?

27. Knowing what you know now, if you were starting a career would you become an anthropologist? Why or why not?

28. Further study: Would you agree to participate in a follow-up interview in order to facilitate the work of the Committee?

Yes ______ No ______

29. Please comment on this questionnaire


Appendix C

Tables

Table 1. Responses to Question 4: Birth place of Respondents by Ethnic Group




			American    Asian    Spanish-    Black

			 Indian              Speaking

Western US

  California                1         1          1         1

  Oklahoma                  1

  Oregon                              1

Central US

  Illinois                                       1         1

  Michigan                                                 1

  Ohio                                                     2

  South Dakota              1

Southern US

  Alabama                                                  2

  Kentucky                  1

  West Virginia                                            1

Eastern US

  Massachusetts                                            1

  New York                                       1         3

  Pennsylvania                                             2

Puerto Rico                                      1

Argentina                                        1

China                                 2

Costa Rica                                       1

India                                 1

Japan                                 2

Korea                                 1

Mexico                                           1

Nigeria                                                    1

Pakistan                              1

Spain                                            1

No answer                                                  1

  Total                     4         9          8        16

Table 2. Responses to Question 13a: Do you consider yourself to be a minority anthropologist?




			American    Asian    Spanish-    Black

			 Indian              Speaking



Yes                         1         5          5         13

  In a mixed way            1

  Depends on context        1

  Depends on definition;

    like to be just

    anthropologist                    1

  Considered such by

    majority                          1

No                                    1          2

  But treated as one                  1

  Just an anthropologist

    (not minority anthr)              1                     1

  Clashes w/ego                                             1

Yes & No                                     1

Don't know what it means    1

  Total                     4         9          8         16

Table 3. Responses to the Question 13b: What term or phrase can best be used to refer to your ethnic background/




			American    Asian    Spanish-    Black

			 Indian              Speaking



American Indian             2

  White-Amer Indian         1

  Iroquois-Mohawk-

    American Indian         1

Chinese                               2

Japanese                              4

Korean                                1

Pakistani                             1

Oriya-Indian                          1

Black Puerto Rican                               1

Chicano                                          1

Latin American                                   2

Mexican (Mexico)                                 1

Portuguese                                       1

Spanish, Mexican (Mexico)                        1

Half-Spanish                                     1

Black                                                      13

Black (African)                                             1

Black, Afro-American                                        1

Culture = American

  (Alabama Hillbilly)                                       1

  Total                     4         9          8         16

Table 4. Responses to the Question 13c: What term or phrase can best be used inclusively to refer to a wider ethnic or minority category with which you identify?




			American    Asian    Spanish-    Black

			 Indian              Speaking



Non-White                   1

American Indian             1

White-American Indian       1

Non-Euro American-

  Third World               1

Asian                                 7

Asian to a limited extent             1

European, Latin American,

  Foreign born, alien                            1

Latin American                                   1

Non-White, Black-

  Third World                                    1

White                                            1

Mexican                                          1

Mexican of Mexico,

  white of recent

  European stock                                 1

"Other"                                          2

African                                                    3

American                                                   1

Third World                                                1

Afro-American                                              1

No Answer                                                  2

Statement                                                  2

  Total                     4         9          8        16



Table 5. Responses to Question 12a: Which language was spoken in your home when you were a child?




			American    Asian    Spanish-    Black

			 Indian              Speaking



English                     1                              14

Chinese                               2

Japanese                              3

Portuguese                                       1

Spanish                                          3

Oriya                                 1

English-Spanish                                  3          1

Igbo-Eyik                                                   1

English-Cherokee            1

English-Japanese                      1

Japanese-Korean                       1

Spanish-French                                   1

Dakota-English-French       1

French-Enalish-Mohawk       1

Urdu-Panjabi-English                  1

  Total                     4         9          8         16



Table 6. Responses to the Question 12b: Which languages are spoken in your home now?




			American    Asian    Spanish-    Black

			 Indian              Speaking



English                     1         5          1         13

French                                1

Spanish                                          1

Oriya                                 1

English-Spanish                                  5

English-Chinese                       1

English-Japanese                      1

English-Dakota              1

English-Portuguese                               1

English-Taniana             1

English-Malay                                               1

English-Mohawk              1

English-Igbo                                                1

English-Spanish-Portuguese                                  1

  Total                     4         9          8         16

Table 7. Responses to Question 29: Please Comment on the Questionnaire (multiple answers were scored)




		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

		 Indian              Speaking



No answer           1         4         1          2        8

Positive comments

  Approval                    1         1          5        7

  Other positive reaction               1                   1

Neutral comments

  Call for discussion

   and/or interviews          2                    2        4

Negative comments

  Questions cited as too:

   long             1         1         2          1        5

   broad                      2                             2

   hard             2                              1        3

   complicated or

    involved                  1                             1

  Other negative comments               5          5       10

Other

  Other miscellaneous

  comment (neither

  positive nor

  negative)         2         2         1          1        6



Total               6        13        10         18       47

Table 8. Responses to Question 28: Further study: Would you agree to participate in a follow-up interview in order to facilitate the work of the committee? Yes, No




		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

		 Indian              Speaking



No Answer                               1

Yes                 4         9         7         13        33

Qualified yes                                      2         2

No                                                 1         1

  Total             4         9         8         16        37



Table 9. Responses to Question 20: How do you feel about anthropology?






		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

		 Indian              Speaking



No answer                     3         3          1         7

Positive statement            2         3          6        11

Qualified positive

  statement         2         2         1          2         7

Neutral statement                                  1         1

Qualified negative

  statement         2                              2         4

Negative statement            2         1          4         7



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 10. Responses to Question 20: Reasons for positive feelings (Multiple answers were scored)






		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

		 Indian              Speaking



Does not apply                2         1          4         7

No answer           1         5         4          5        15

Discipline is

 personally satisfying

 rewarding, exciting

 or interesting     1                   1          3         5

Best of the

 social sciences              1         2                    3

Increases understanding

 of self and/or

 others             1                              1         2

Cross-cultural

 perspective        1         1                              2

Other               1         1         2          4         8



Total               5         9        10         18        41

Table 11. Responses to Question 20: Reasons for negative feelings (Multiple answers were scored)


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Does not apply                2         3          6        11

No answer                     3         3          4        10

Discipline is

 ethnocentric                 2         1          2         5

Discipline and/or

 its practitioners

 are racists or

 intolerant         1         1                    4         6

Exploits "natives"  2         1                    1         4

Needs to develop

 Third World

 anthropologists

 or be of use to

 the Third World              2                    1         3

Needs to explain

 to the layman better         1         1                    2

Not applied enough            2         1                    3

Amoral              2                                        2

Other               1         1                    2         4



Total               6        15         9         20        50

Table 12. Responses to Question 27: Knowing what you know now, if you were starting a career would you become an anthropologist? Why or why not?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



No answer                     1         1          1         3

Yes                 2         7         5         11        25

Yes, but would

 also consider

 another field      1                              1         2

Other qualified

 yes                          1                              1

No                  1                   2          3         6



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 13. Response to Question 27: Reasons for becoming or remaining an anthropologist (Multiple answers were scored)


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Does not apply      1         1         2          3         7

No answer           1         3         3          5        12

Personal

 satisfactions      2         1         2          1         6

Understanding

 self and others              1         1          1         3

Other               1         3                    6        10



Total               5         9         8         16        38

Table 14. Responses to Question 27: Reasons for not becoming or remaining an anthropologist


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Does not apply      3         8         5         11        27

No answer or

 explanation                  1         1          1         2

Applied focus is

 too weak; hard to

 be of use                              1          1         2

Other               1                   1          3         5



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 15. Responses to Question 16: It has been said that the intellectual contributions of minority anthropologists are not given the same consideration as those of non-minority anthropologists. For example, the writings of minority anthropologists are often not reviewed in professional journals, not quoted or cited, and seldom used as required readings. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? If you agree, can you think of examples? If you disagree, please comment.


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Agreed              2         5         2          9        18

Disagreed           1         4         3                    8

Unclear             1                   3          7        11



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 16. Responses to Question 16: Source of respondent's data supporting response


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Experienced

 personally                   1         1          1         3

Perceived general

 trend              1         4         3          2        10

Seen in others'

 experience, but

 not in own                                        4         4

Personal experience

 and perceived

 general trend*     1         1                              2

Neither experience

 nor general trend  1         2         1          2         6

No data possessed

 (or no answer

  given)            1         1         3          7        12



Total               4         9         8         16        37



*This category is marked only when the respondent explicitly alludes

to both a perceived general trend in Anthropology and to incidents

in his own experience. For practical purposes this category can be

collapsed over the first two in this table.

Table 17. Responses to Question 18: Some minority anthropologists say that in contrast to non-minority anthropologists they have been utilized in the following ways: fieldworker and interviewer; liaison to a minority, ethnic or cultural group; "cultural broker-interpreter" for majority member anthropologists; informant. Does your experience, both as a student and professional anthropologist now, bear out this assertion? If so, please tell us about it. If you disagree, please comment.


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Agreed              3         7         6         10        26

Disagreed           1         1         1          5         8

Unclear                       1         1          1         3



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 18. Responses to Question 18: Source of respondent's data supporting response


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Experienced

 personally         3         4         3          9        19

Perceived general

 trend                        2         1          1         4

Seen in others'

 experience, but

 not in own         1                   1          1         3

Personal experience

 and perceived

 general trend*               2                              2

Neither experience

 nor general trend                      1          4         5

No data possessed

 (or no answer

  given)                      1         2          1         4



Total               4         9         8         16        37



*This category is marked only when the respondent explicitly alludes

to both a perceived general trend in Anthropology and to incidents

in his own experience. For practical purposes this category can be

collapsed over the first two in this table.

Table 19. Responses to Question 18: Roles played by minority member anthropologists*


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking





Fieldworker

 and interpreter              2                    2         4

Liaison to

 minority group                                    2         2

Cultural broker

 and interpreter              1         2          4         7

Informant                     1                    1         2

All roles

 mentioned          3         3         1          1         8

None of the

 roles mentioned    1         1         1          5         8

No data or

 answer given                 1         2          1         4

General agreement

 (without specific

  allusion)                             2                    2



Total               4         9         8         16        37



*Several respondents mentioned two or more of the roles (but not all).

These respondents were entered in the "All roles mentioned" category.

Table 20. Responses to Question 19: It has also been asserted that minority anthropologists have been excluded from making theoretical formulations, interpretations of research findings, and policy decisions. Does your experience both as a student and a professional anthropologist bear out this assertion? If so, please tell us about it. If not, please comment.


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Agreed              3         6         2          6        17

Disagreed           1         2         3          6        12

Unclear                       1         3          4         8



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 21. Responses to Question 19: Source of respondent's data supporting response


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Experienced

 personally         2                   1          5         8

Perceived general

 trend                        3                    1         4

Seen in others'

 experience, but

 not in own         1                   1          1         3

Personal experience

 and perceived

 general trend*               2                              2

Neither experience

 nor general trend  1         1         1          3         6

No data possessed

 (or no answer

  given)                      3         5          6        14



Total               4         9         8         16        37



*This category is marked only when the respondent explicitly alludes

to both a perceived general trend in Anthropology and to incidents

in his own experience. For practical purposes this category can be

collapsed over the first two in this table.

Table 22. Responses to Question 14: Do you feel that your experiences have differed in anthropology either positively or negatively from those of non-minority anthropologists?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Yes                 3         8         5          7        23

No                            1         1          1         3

Unclear             1                              6         7

No Response                             2          2         4



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 23. Responses to Question 14: The nature of the response


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Negative            2         5                    4        11

Positive                                1          3         4

Both positive

 and negative       1         1                    2         4

Unclear                       1         4          3         8

No answer           1         2         3          4        10



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 24. Responses to Question 17: Do you feel that you have been discriminated career because of race, color, or creed?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Yes                 3         6         1          6        16

No                            2         4          6        12

Unclear             1         1         2          4         8

No answer                               1                    1



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 25. Responses to Question 15: Were your experiences as a student different from those of non-minority students? If so, please tell us in what ways.


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Yes                 3         5         3         10        21

No                  1         4         2          1         8

Unclear                                 1          5         6

No answer                               2                    2



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 26. Responses to Question 15: The nature of the responses


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Negative            1         3         1          6        11

Both positive

 and negative                                      1         1

Unclear             1         1         1          1         4

No answer           2         5         6          8        21



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 27. Responses to Question 24: Do you advise minority students to enter anthropology? Why or why not?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Does not apply                                     1         1

Strongly advise     1         1                              2

Advise                        6         3         12        21

Advise with

 reservations       1                                        1

Neutral                       1         3                    4

Do not advise       1         1         1          3*        6

Generally not       1                                        1

No answer                               1                    1



Total               4         9         8         16        37



*Two of these advise students to take necessarily to major in it or

pursue graduate studies in it.

Table 28. Responses to Question 24: Reasons for advising minority students to enter anthropology (Multiple answers were scored)


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Benefit anthropology          5         1          7        13

Offers more to

 student (ie,

 jobs, less

 prejudice, etc.)   1         1         1          4         7

Deepen under-

 standing of one's

 own ethnic group             3                              3

Provides techniques

 for problem

 solving            2         1         1                    4

No answer                     1         2          2         5

Does not apply                                     1         1

Other                         1                    1         2



Total               3        12         5         15        35

Table 29. Responses to Question 24: Reasons for not advising minority students to enter anthropology or for doing so with reservations (Multiple answers scored)


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Few opportunities                       1                    1

Psychic difficulties                               1         1

Disillusionment

 with limitations   1         1         1                    3

No reason given     1                   1          2         4

Advise according to

 interest, disregarding

 minority status                        4                    4



Total               2         1         7          3        13

Table 30. Responses to Question 25: Can you suggest ways in which anthropology can be made more relevant for minority students? (Multiple answers were scored)


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



No problem of

 relevancy                    1         2                    3

Use for self-

 identity           2                   1          4         7

Emphasize applied

 and change theory  2                   2          3         7

Emphasize American

 culture                      2                    2         4

Minority studies of

 own and other groups         2         1                    3

Use minority examples         3         1                    4

More funding for

 minorities                                        5         5

Combat racism       1         1                    2         4

Less elitism--more

 control by people

 studied            2         1                    1         4

More anthropology in

 lower grades       1         1         1                    3

Other                         2         3          2         7

No answer           1         2         2          4         9



Total               9        15        13         23        60

Table 31. Responses to Question 26: Can you give an estimate of the number of students of minority background at your university or institution who are interested in anthropology? Undergraduate? Graduate?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Undergraduates

Don't know 1 4 5 No answer 2 1 2 5 Not applicable 1 1 2 4 "Many" 2 2 Misunderstood* 1 1 None 1 1 2 1-5 2 4 2 2 10 6-10 1 2 1 4 over 10 1 2 3 Graduates

Don't know 2 2 No answer 4 4 2 10 Not applicable 1 1 3 5 Misunderstood* 1 1 "Quite a few" 1 1 None 2 3 5 1-5 3 1 6 10 6-10 1 1 1 3 over 10 1 1 *Apparently gave estimate of total number of all students in anthropology.

Table 32. Responses to Question 21: Do you feel that anthropological studies in the past have rendered service or disservice to minority groups in American society? Please include specific examples you may know of in your answer.


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Rendered service              3                     2       4

Rendered

 disservice         1         3         1          10      15

Both service and

 disservice         3         3         1           3      10

Don't know                              2           1       3

No Answer                               4                   4



Total               4         9         8          16      37

Table 33. Responses to Question 22a: How do you assess the research which has been conducted on your minority group?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Good                1                              2        3

Bad                 1                              5        6

Both                2         1         1                   4

Unfamiliar with

 group                        1                             1

No significant

 work                         4         1          5       10

No answer                     3         6          4       13



Total               4         9         8         16       37

Table 34. Responses to Question 22b: Do you think such work can be improved?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Yes                 2         4         4          6        16

No answer           2         5         1         10        18

No such research

 exists                                 3                    3



Total               4         9         8         16        37

Table 35. Responses to Question 23: Can you suggest ways in which anthropology can be used to serve the needs of minority groups in the United States?


       		American    Asian    Spanish-    Black    Total

        	 Indian              Speaking



Response given      4         7         4         15        30

No comment                              1          1         2

No response                   2         3                    5



Total               4         9         8         16        37

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